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滝の形状による分類 List of waterfalls by type

更新日:2020年4月9日

Waterfall (Wikipedia)

  • Ledge waterfall (直瀑): Water descends vertically over a vertical cliff, maintaining partial contact with the bedrock. (e.g. Niagara Falls)

  • Ledge/Block/Sheet: Water descends from a relatively wide stream or river.

  • Ledge/Classical: Ledge waterfalls where fall height is nearly equal to stream width, forming a vertical square shape.

  • Ledge/Curtain: Ledge waterfalls which descend over a height larger than the width of falling water stream.

  • Plunge: Fast-moving water descends vertically, losing complete contact with the bedrock surface. The contact is typically lost due to horizontal velocity of the water before it falls. It always starts from a narrow stream. (e.g. Angel Falls)

    • Plunge/Punchbowl: Water descends in a constricted form and then spreads out in a wider pool. (e.g. Punch Bowl Falls)

  • Horsetail: Descending water maintains contact with bedrock most of the time. (e.g. Jog Falls)

    • Horsetail/Slide: Water glides down maintaining continuous contact.

    • Horsetail/Ribbon: Water descends over a long narrow strip.

    • Horsetail/Chute: A large quantity of water forced through a narrow, vertical passage.

    • Horsetail/Fan: Water spreads horizontally as it descends while remaining in contact with bedrock (e.g. Powerscourt Waterfall).

  • Cascade: Water descends a series of rock steps. (e.g. Numa Falls)

  • Tiered/Multi-step/Staircase: A series of waterfalls one after another of roughly the same size each with its own sunken plunge pool. (e.g. Ebor Falls)

  • Cataract: A large, powerful waterfall. (e.g. Victoria Falls)

  • Segmented: Distinctly separate flows of water form as it descends.

  • Frozen: Any waterfall which has some element of ice or snow.

  • Moulin: A moulin is a waterfall in a glacier.

Some waterfalls are also distinct in that they do not flow continuously. Ephemeral waterfalls only flow after a rain or a significant snowmelt.

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