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滝の形状による分類 List of waterfalls by type


Waterfall (Wikipedia)

  • Ledge waterfall (直瀑): Water descends vertically over a vertical cliff, maintaining partial contact with the bedrock. (e.g. Niagara Falls)

  • Ledge/Block/Sheet: Water descends from a relatively wide stream or river.

  • Ledge/Classical: Ledge waterfalls where fall height is nearly equal to stream width, forming a vertical square shape.

  • Ledge/Curtain: Ledge waterfalls which descend over a height larger than the width of falling water stream.

  • Plunge: Fast-moving water descends vertically, losing complete contact with the bedrock surface. The contact is typically lost due to horizontal velocity of the water before it falls. It always starts from a narrow stream. (e.g. Angel Falls)

    • Plunge/Punchbowl: Water descends in a constricted form and then spreads out in a wider pool. (e.g. Punch Bowl Falls)

  • Horsetail: Descending water maintains contact with bedrock most of the time. (e.g. Jog Falls)

    • Horsetail/Slide: Water glides down maintaining continuous contact.

    • Horsetail/Ribbon: Water descends over a long narrow strip.

    • Horsetail/Chute: A large quantity of water forced through a narrow, vertical passage.

    • Horsetail/Fan: Water spreads horizontally as it descends while remaining in contact with bedrock (e.g. Powerscourt Waterfall).

  • Cascade: Water descends a series of rock steps. (e.g. Numa Falls)

  • Tiered/Multi-step/Staircase: A series of waterfalls one after another of roughly the same size each with its own sunken plunge pool. (e.g. Ebor Falls)

  • Cataract: A large, powerful waterfall. (e.g. Victoria Falls)

  • Segmented: Distinctly separate flows of water form as it descends.

  • Frozen: Any waterfall which has some element of ice or snow.

  • Moulin: A moulin is a waterfall in a glacier.

Some waterfalls are also distinct in that they do not flow continuously. Ephemeral waterfalls only flow after a rain or a significant snowmelt.






2024年の鎌倉における3Dモデル生成を計画している箇所を以下に示す。 場所:北条氏常盤亭跡 対象:法華堂跡、やぐら  ・・・24年1月現在、土砂崩れのため入れず 場所:大仏切通し(追加分) 対象:切通しと側壁 ・・・実施済み 場所:天園ハイキングコース(覚園寺裏山) 対象:十王岩、朱垂木やぐら、百八やぐら・・・実施済みも追加実施予定 場所:朝比奈切通し 対象:切通しと側壁 場所:明月院 対象:明


以下は鎌倉のやぐらに関する論文である。 神奈川県鎌倉市教育委員会,「西瓜ヶ谷やぐら調査報告書」ー平成24年度詳細分布調査ー ー平成25年度 重要遺跡確認調査ー,平成27年3月. 朽津 信明・李 心堅・関 博充・森井 順之・遠藤 努,「鎌倉市百八やぐらの保存を目的とした亀裂計測」,保存科学No.44,pp109-116,2005. 古田土俊一,「やぐらの起源をさぐる」,「鎌倉の文化財、その価値と魅力


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